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Core Java Interview Questions and Answers

Ques. What is the difference between StringBuffer and String class?
Ans. A string buffer implements a mutable sequence of characters. A string buffer is like a String, but can be modified. At any point in time it contains some particular sequence of characters, but the length and content of the sequence can be changed through certain method calls.
The String class represents character strings. All string literals in Java programs, such as "abc" are constant and implemented as instances of this class; their values cannot be changed after they are created. Strings in Java are known to be immutable.

Explanation: What it means is that every time you need to make a change to a String variable, behind the scene, a "new" String is actually being created by the JVM. For an example: if you change your String variable 2 times, then you end up with 3 Strings: one current and 2 that are ready for garbage collection. The garbage collection cycle is quite unpredictable and these additional unwanted Strings will take up memory until that cycle occurs. For better performance, use StringBuffers for string-type data that will be reused or changed frequently. There is more overhead per class than using String, but you will end up with less overall classes and consequently consume less memory. Describe, in general, how java's garbage collector works? The Java runtime environment deletes objects when it determines that they are no longer being used. This process is known as garbage collection. The Java runtime environment supports a garbage collector that periodically frees the memory used by objects that are no longer needed. The Java garbage collector is a mark-sweep garbage collector that scans Java's dynamic memory areas for objects, marking those that are referenced. After all possible paths to objects are investigated, those objects that are not marked (i.e. are not referenced) are known to be garbage and are collected. (A more complete description of our garbage collection algorithm might be "A compacting, mark-sweep collector with some conservative scanning".) The garbage collector runs synchronously when the system runs out of memory, or in response to a request from a Java program. Your Java program can ask the garbage collector to run at any time by calling System.gc(). The garbage collector requires about 20 milliseconds to complete its task so, your program should only run the garbage collector when there will be no performance impact and the program anticipates an idle period long enough for the garbage collector to finish its job. Note: Asking the garbage collection to run does not guarantee that your objects will be garbage collected. The Java garbage collector runs asynchronously when the system is idle on systems that allow the Java runtime to note when a thread has begun and to interrupt another thread (such as Windows 95). As soon as another thread becomes active, the garbage collector is asked to get to a consistent state and then terminate.
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