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EJB Interview Questions and Answers

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Experienced / Expert level questions & answers

Ques 1. can we have static initializer Block in EJB?

Purpose of Static initializer block is to initialize some static fields before any execution of constructor or method or we can say creation of object. According to EJB Spec itís a violation if static field are used and they are non final .

"EJB Spec":
Enterprise bean are not allowed to read or write the non final fields.

But technically,from the point of java its correct but if in EJB we use static initializer block to initialize static field then because EJB components are used in distributed environment mean to say if single JVM then it will be ok but if run on different JVM then it will be a problem if we change or update the value in on environment then only the instance running on same JVM have new value .thatís why static blocks are avoided and also all static field should be final.
And same thing we can achieve in ejbCreate(), setSessionContext() or setEntityContext() methods.

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Ques 2. Is threading is possible in EJB?

No, Not possible because EJBs are created and managed by container and if in ejbs we allow threading containers life cycle methods will be interrupted by us and also the purpose of EJB is to perform business logic not to controlling a system or implementation level functioning so container will manage the thread and developer can concentrate on business logic.

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Ques 3. What is connection pooling feature of EJB container?

Connection pooling is one of the Advance feature of container which enhanced our application performance .Using connection pooling mechanism client are not required to create every time connection object to interact with database .Here in pool objects are already available Whenever a client request for a database connection then an instance is picked from the connection pool to get an access to database and when user complete with his work instance is returned to connection pool. There is a limit specified by App server administrator for the availability of number of connections and beyond a specified limit a predefined number increases numbers of connection pool instances. When demand goes back to normal then access amount of connection pool instances are removed.

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Ques 4. What is Session facade?

Session FaÁade is one of the design pattern which is used in EJB component in this pattern session beans are used as a wrapper classes for entity bean and using session bean we interact with Entity bean .it will give clean approach towards client access to bean components and also reduce network calls so as to make the whole system of high performance.

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Ques 5. What are the transaction Attribute?

Transaction is group of operation or work which should be performed either completely or none to maintain the data integrity. All transaction must have ACID property(atomicity ,consistency,integrity,durability) so transaction can be said completed if we commit on successful execution and rollback on unsuccessful execution.
There are two ways of transaction management.
∑ Declarative Transaction Mang.
∑ Programmatic Transaction Mang.
Now we see what the transactions Attribute are
Transaction Attribute conveys to the container the intended transactional behavior of the associated EJB component's method.

Required: if required attribute is associated with Method then new Transaction context may or may not be created, means if method is already associated with transaction context then no new transaction context should be created.

Requires New: if Requires New attribute is associated with Method then always new Transaction context may be created.

NotSupported:if Method is Associated with this Attribute then method is a not a part of transaction.

Supported:if a Method is Associated with this transaction Attribute then method will act as Not supported if calling component is not associated with transaction and if calling component is associated with transaction then act as a required Attribute.

Mandatory:if a method is Associated with this attribute then always be called from calling component transaction context.

Never: if a method is Associated with this attribute then never be called from calling component transaction context.
The default transaction value for EJB is Support.

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Ques 6. Difference Between ejbStore() and ejbLoad()?

Both of these methods are used in context of entity bean for the purpose of synchronizing the instance variable to corresponding value store in the database. ejbLoad method load or refresh the instance variable from the database and ejbStore method writes variables value back to the database.

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Ques 7. What is the difference between JNDI context, Initial context, session context and ejb context?

JNDI context: provides mechanism to lookup resources on network.

Initial Context: it provides initial context to resources.

Session Context:it has all the information available which is required to session bean from container.

EjbContext:it contain information which is required to both session and entity bean.

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Ques 8. What are the types of Scaling?

There are two types of scaling: Vertical Scaling and Horizontal Scaling.
Vertical Scaling - When multiple server clones of an application server are defined on the same physical m/c, it is called Vertical Scaling. The objective is to use the processing power of that m/c more efficiently.
Horizontal Scaling - When Clones of an application server are defined on multiple physical m/c, it is called Horizontal Scaling. The objective is to use more than one less powerful m/c more efficiently.

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Ques 9. What is a Server Group?

A server group is a template of an Application Server(and its contents) i.e, it is a logical representation of the application server. It has the same structure and attributes as the real Application Server, but it is not associated with any node, and does not correspond to any real server process running on any node.

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Ques 10. What is EJBDoclet?

EJBDoclet is an open source JavaDoc doclet that generates a lot of the EJB related source files from custom JavaDoc comments tags embedded in the EJB source file.

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Ques 11. What are the methods of Entity Bean?What is the difference between Container-Managed Persistent (CMP) bean and Bean-Managed Persistent(BMP)?

Container-managed persistence beans are the simplest for the bean developer to create and the most difficult for the EJB server to support. This is because all the logic for synchronizing the beanís state with the database is handled automatically by the container. This means that the bean developer doesnít need to write any data access logic, while the EJB server is supposed to take care of all the persistence needs automatically. With CMP, the container manages the persistence of the entity bean. A CMP bean developer doesnít need to worry about JDBC code and transactions, because the Container performs database calls and transaction management instead of the programmer. Vendor tools are used to map the entity fields to the database and absolutely no database access code is written in the bean class. All table mapping is specified in the deployment descriptor. Otherwise, a BMP bean developer takes the load of linking an application and a database on his shoulders.

The bean-managed persistence (BMP) enterprise bean manages synchronizing its state with the database as directed by the container. The bean uses a database API to read and write its fields to the database, but the container tells it when to do each synchronization operation and manages the transactions for the bean automatically. Bean-managed persistence gives the bean developer the flexibility to perform persistence operations that are too complicated for the container or to use a data source that is not supported by the container.BMP beans are not 100% database-independent, because they may contain database-specific code, but CMP beans are unable to perform complicated DML (data manipulation language) statements. EJB 2.0 specification introduced some new ways of querying database (by using the EJB QL - query language).

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Ques 12. When should I adopt BMP and when I should use CMP?

You can use CMP and BMP beans in the same applicatioN... obviously, a bean can be BMP or CMP, not both at the same time (they are mutually exclusive).

There is a common approach that is normally used and considered a good one. You should start developing CMP beans, unless you require some kind of special bean, like multi-tables, that cannot be completely realized with a single bean. Then, when you realize that you need something more or that you would prefer handling the persistence (performanbce issue are the most common reason), you can change the bean from a CMP to a BMP.

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Ques 13. Static variables in EJB should not be relied upon as they may break in clusters.Why?

Static variables are only ok if they are final. If they are not final, they will break the cluster. What that means is that if you cluster your application server (spread it across several machines) each part of the cluster will run in its own JVM.

Say a method on the EJB is invoked on cluster 1 (we will have two clusters - 1 and 2) that causes value of the static variable to be increased to 101. On the subsequent call to the same EJB from the same client, a cluster 2 may be invoked to handle the request. A value of the static variable in cluster 2 is still 100 because it was not increased yet and therefore your application ceases to be consistent. Therefore, static non-final variables are strongly discouraged in EJBs.

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Ques 14. What is re-entrant. Is session beans reentrant. Is entity beans reentrant?

If we define the entity bean as being reentrant, multiple clients can connect to the Entity bean & execute methods within the entity bean concurrently. Container takes care of synchronization. If we define the entity bean as non-reentrant and many clients connect to it concurrently to execute a method, exception is thrown .

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Ques 15. What is Remote client view?

The remote client view specification is only available in EJB 2.0. The remote client view of an enterprise bean is location independent. A client running in the same JVM as a bean instance uses the same API to access the bean as a client running in a different JVM on the same or different machine.
Remote interface: The remote interface specifies the remote business methods that a client can call on an enterprise bean.
Remote home interface: The remote home interface specifies the methods used by remote clients for locating, creating, and removing instances of enterprise bean classes.

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Ques 16. What is Local client view?

The local client view specification is only available in EJB 2.0. Unlike the remote client view, the local client view of a bean is location dependent. Local client view access to an enterprise bean requires both the local client and the enterprise bean that provides the local client view to be in the same JVM. The local client view therefore does not provide the location transparency provided by the remote client view. Local interfaces and local home interfaces provide support for lightweight access from enterprise bean that are local clients. Session and entity beans can be tightly couple with their clients, allowing access without the overhead typically associated with remote method calls.

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