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SDLC Interview Questions and Answers

Freshers / Beginner level questions & answers

Ques 1. What is Software Life Cycle?

Software life cycle comprise the total life of the software developed right from the time of initial development to the time it is scrapped out or terminated. This includes the development phases, revisions and upgrades and if necessary adding it up with another software project as well.

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Ques 2. Why is software development life cycle important?

SDLC serves as a guide to the project and provides a flexible and consistent medium to accommodate changes, and perform the project to meet the client's objectives. SDLC phases define key schedules and delivery points that ensure timely and correct delivery to the client within budget and other constraints and project requirements. SDLC co-operates with project control and management activities as they must be introduced within each phase of SDLC. 

Following are some of the points that briefly describe the importance of the SDLC process:

  • It explains why project planning, scheduling, and budgeting are necessary.
  • It allows for some control over the development process in order to guarantee that the final product meets the original criteria.
  • It provides a structure for a standard set of projects and deliverables.
  • It helps in the growth process by increasing the visibility of project planning to all involved parties.
  • It assures that the design and testing processes that lead to a solution's release are good and well-managed.
  • It is the most effective method for project management and tracking.
  • It aids in the acceleration of development and the improvement of client relationships.
  • It aids in the reduction of project risk and overhead in the project administration plan.

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Ques 3. What are the different phases in SDLC?

There are 5 phases in Software Development Life Cycle:

1. Requirement & analysis
2. Design
3. Coding
4. Testing
5. Maintenance

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Ques 4. What is SDLC model? What are the most well known SDLC models?

An SDLC model defines implementation of an approach to the project. It defines the various processes, and phases that would be carried out throughout the project to produce the desired output. There are a variety of SDLC models that exist catering to different needs and characteristics of a project. Some are of iterative nature (Prototyping), whereas some are sequential (waterfall). Some of the well known SDLC models are:

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RAD Model
  • Agile Model 

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Ques 5. Explain the phases in a typical SDLC process briefly.

  • Planning: The first stage of the SDLC is all about determining, what clients want. Project planning is an important component of the software delivery lifecycle because it is here that the team estimates the cost and outlines the new program's needs.
  • Gathering Requirements: Defining requirements is part of the planning process to figure out what the application is supposed to perform and what it needs. The development team examines the requirements while keeping the software's design and code in mind.
  • Design: The following phase entails distilling all of the software project's requirements, analysis, and design information. This phase is the culmination of the previous two, such as customer feedback and requirement collecting. It is a simulation of how a software application will work. Some particulars of this phase are architecture, platform, security, and user interface.
  • Development: This is where the code is really written. Writing code is the first step in putting a design into action. Developers must adhere to the coding requirements set forth by their bosses. Many other jobs are included in the coding process. Many developers need to brush up on their abilities or collaborate with others. It's vital to find and resolve problems and flaws. If any changes or upgrades are needed, the developers can show the work to the business analysts.
  • Testing: Before making an application available to users, it's vital to test it. The testing team examines the system's overall functionality. This phase aids in reducing the number of faults and issues seen by consumers. As a result, there is a higher level of user satisfaction and a higher rate of utilization.
  • Deployment: Once the product has been thoroughly tested and is ready for deployment, it is made available to customers. The deployment's complexity is determined by the project's size. Many businesses prefer to have the deployment step automated.
  • Maintenance: The developed product is looked after throughout this period. The program is updated on a regular basis to keep up with the changing user-end environment or technology. Users find flaws that were not discovered during testing. These issues must be addressed, which may result in new development cycles.

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Ques 6. Explain the types of SDLC models.

The following are the predominant models that come under SDLC:

    Waterfall model: The waterfall model is a prominent software engineering and product development approach that takes a linear, sequential approach to the software development life cycle (SDLC). The waterfall approach emphasizes a logical step-by-step process. It was the first model in the software business to be extensively adopted. It is divided into phases, with one phase's output becoming the input for the next.
    Agile model: Agile approaches divide jobs into smaller iterations or sections and avoid long-term planning entirely. The scope and requirements of the project are defined at the start of the development phase. The number of iterations, duration, and scope of each iteration are all clearly determined ahead of time. In the Agile process model, each iteration is a small-time "frame" that lasts anywhere from one to four weeks. 
    Iterative model: One of the most straightforward software development life cycle models is the iterative approach. There are several situations when the initial or basic software requirements are well-defined, but the project's complete scope or set of features is unclear. It primarily focuses on preliminary growth and design, then gradually develops momentum as more complex needs are met until the final software is completely constructed. 
    Spiral model: The spiral model is a risk management strategy that combines the iterative development process model with parts of the Waterfall approach. The spiral approach is preferred by software engineers for large, expensive, and complex projects.
    V-model model: The V-model is an SDLC paradigm in which processes are executed in a V-shape in a sequential manner. The Verification and Validation model is another name for it. The waterfall model is extended by the V-Model. Every phase of the development cycle has a testing phase that is directly linked to it. 

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Ques 7. Which SDLC model is best and Why?

According to the annual State of Agile report, Agile is the best SDLC methodology and also one of the most widely utilized SDLC in the IT industry. Unlike other predictive approaches, the adaptive agile methodology does not necessitate comprehensive preparation. If a change is required, it can be made during the sprint. It's ideal for projects that require a lot of customer involvement and projects that have a constantly changing environment.

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Ques 8. What are the advantages of the SDLC process?

At the end of each stage, a formal review is established to provide maximum management oversight. SDLC aids in the creation of extensive system documentation. This guarantees that system needs can be linked to specified business goals. It generates a large number of intermediate products that may be evaluated to see if they fit the user's requirements and adhere to industry standards. These can be improved further if necessary, ensuring that the company receives exactly what it requires.

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Ques 9. What are the disadvantages of the SDLC process?

Before you begin, make sure you understand all of the details of the project. During the development phase, there was a lot of paperwork. It is difficult to alter or change due to a lack of flexibility. If the planning isn't done properly, the project will take longer and cost more. When there are a lot of flaws in the code, fixing them can take a long time and cause deadlines to be missed.

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Ques 10. List Top SDLC tools.

  • Jira: This software is intended to make workflow management easier for a wide range of groups. Jira was created with the intention of being a simple system for recording tasks and errors. However, it has since matured into a robust workflow management solution.
  • Git is a distributed version management system that is open-source. Developers aiming to examine changes and contributions to the overall code might considerably benefit from a version control system or VCS. This software customization management tool is an important part of the SDLC.
  • Confluence: During this stage, Confluence is a wonderful tool for developing product research docs and sharing design assets.
  • Asana: From daily activities to larger projects, Asana assists teams in orchestrating their work. Teams are more confident, move faster, and accomplish more with less when they use Asana, regardless of where they are based.

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Ques 11. What are the differences between Agile and Waterfall Methodologies?

It separates the project development lifecycle into sprints.The software development process is divided into distinct phases.
It follows an incremental approachWaterfall methodology is a sequential design process.
Agile methodology is known for its flexibility.Waterfall is a structured software development methodology so most times it can be quite rigid.
Agile can be considered a collection of many different projects.Software development will be completed as one single project.
Agile is quite a flexible method that allows changes to be made in the project development requirements even if the initial planning has been completed.There is no scope for changing the requirements once the project development starts.
The agile methodology follows an iterative development approach because of this planning, development, prototyping, and other software development phases may appear more than once.All the project development phases like designing, development, testing, etc. are completed once in the Waterfall model.
The test plan is reviewed after each sprintThe test plan is rarely discussed during the test phase.
Agile development is a process in which the requirements are expected to change and evolve.The method is ideal for projects which have definite requirements and changes not at all expected.
In Agile methodology, testing is performed concurrently with software development.In this methodology, the “Testing” phase comes after the “Build” phase
Agile introduces a product mindset where the software product satisfies the needs of its end customers and changes itself as per the customer’s demands.This model shows a project mindset and places its focus completely on accomplishing the project.
The agile methodology works exceptionally well with Time & Materials or non-fixed funding. It may increase stress in fixed-price scenarios.Reduces risk in the firm fixed price contracts by getting a risk agreement at the beginning of the process.
Prefers small but dedicated teams with a high degree of coordination and synchronization.Team coordination/synchronization is very limited.
Product owner with team prepares requirements just about every day during a project.Business analysis prepares requirements before the beginning of the project.
The test team can take part in the requirements change without problems.It is difficult for the test to initiate any change in requirements.
The description of project details can be altered anytime during the SDLC process.Detail description needs to implement the waterfall software development approach.
The Agile Team members are interchangeable, as a result, they work faster. There is also no need for project managers because the projects are managed by the entire teamIn the waterfall method, the process is always straightforward so, the project manager plays an essential role during every stage of SDLC.

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Ques 12. Describe prototype software development life cycle model.

Prototype SDLC models is based upon creation of a software prototype of the complete system and then refine and review it continuously till the complete acceptable system is built. 

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Ques 13. Describe rapid application development (RAD) software development life cycle model.

RAD involves iterative development along with the creation of prototypes. It uses interactive use of techniques and prototypes to define user requirements and system design clearly. Structured techniques are used to create initial design models based on user input and prototypes are built on top of that. The end users and analysts use the prototypes to validate and enhance the requirements and design models. The process lasts till a set of final technical requirements and design models have been created. 

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Ques 14. Describe incremental software development life cycle model.

Incremental SDLC approach suggests construction of a partial system rather than the complete system and then builds more functionality into it. Requirements and features are prioritized and categorized and then implemented in phases, each phase based on the waterfall model. The process continues till the complete system is achieved. 

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Ques 15. Describe spiral software development life cycle model.

The spiral SDLC model combines components of both design and prototype in phases. Itís a hybrid of waterfall and prototyping model. One should use spiral SDLC model for large and expensive projects. 

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Ques 16. What is the testing phase in the SDLC model?

One of the most important procedures in the Software Development Lifecycle is testing (SDLC). It enables businesses to do a thorough evaluation of software and verify that their product meets the expectations of their customers. The testing procedure's main purpose is to report, monitor, troubleshoot, and retest software components until they meet the quality requirements established in the initial SRS. During the testing phase, there are numerous forms of testing, including quality assurance testing (QA), system integration testing (SIT), and user acceptability testing (UAT).

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Ques 17. What are the different environments related to development while following SDLC?

The following environments are used while following SDLC:

  • Dev: A development environment is a workspace where developers may make changes without damaging anything in a live environment. The development environment is frequently referred to as a workspace for developers.
  • QA/SIT: System Integration Testing/ Quality Analysis: In a QA environment, you test your update operation against data, hardware, and software that closely resembles the production environment, and you allow intended users to test the outcome.
  • UAT/PRE-PROD: User Acceptance Testing: User acceptance testing (UAT) environments, also known as staging environments, let the application's primary users try out new features before they're deployed into production. Sometimes, we call it a Pre-Production environment as well.
  • PROD: The "Production" environment, sometimes known as "Live" is where real customers/users interact with the software product.

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Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

Ques 18. Describe waterfall software development life cycle model.

Waterfall is a sequential and non-iterative SDLC model which describes the flowing of phases downwards one by one. The process does not start a phase unless the previous phase is completed once and for all completely. The waterfall model consists of the following phases:

    • Requirements gathering
    • Design
    • Implementation
    • Testing
    • Maintenance 

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Ques 19. Briefly describe the phases in the waterfall model.

  • Requirements gathering: All the requirements are gathered and analysis is performed for the complete system.
  • Design: Various design models are created for the complete system after the requirements gathering phase has been completed and ended.
  • Implementation: The complete system is implemented once the design for the system has been frozen.
  • Testing: The complete system is tested after all the construction and integration has completed.
  • Maintenance: Post implementation support carries out after the implementation of the system. 

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Ques 20. Explain the strengths of the waterfall model.

The strengths of the waterfall model are:

  • No planning needed
  • Works well for small projects with fixed and clear requirements.
  • Lesser cost as planning overhead is less
  • Quickest delivery of the complete system 

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Ques 21. Briefly describe the phases in the Incremental model.

Phases of the incremental model are the same as waterfall i.e. Requirements, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance.

However, instead of following the waterfall once and for all linearly, the incremental model takes a different approach. These phases are repeated incrementally as business value is delivered incrementally as well.

For every single phase and increment a waterfall model is followed. The waterfall model is then put in a cycle of increments along with verification of requirements, and design. 

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Ques 22. Briefly describe the phases in the Spiral model.

Phases in spiral model:

a) System requirements are identified in detail.
b) An initial design is created for the new system based on the requirements in previous phase. All feasible and technical approaches are identified and analyzed to build the system. The design is done on a very broader and deeper scope to identify and deal with potential risks in the system.
c) A prototype is created depicting a few features of the system.
d) A second prototype is created using 4 steps: Evaluate first prototype, define requirements for second prototype, planning and designing for second prototype, constructing and testing second prototype.

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Ques 23. Describe tailored software development life cycle model.

There is no specific SDLC model that can be used for all types of projects and situations. If none of the popular SDLC models suit a specific project then, pick the closest matching SDLC model and modify it as per needs. Identify how important is risk assessment and use spiral's risk assessment methodology if it's a risk-critical project.

The project should be delivered in small chunks, ideally merging the incremental model with the V-shaped model. One must spend ample time choosing the right model or customizing one to suit a project for its successful and efficient completion. 

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Ques 24. What is SRS or Software Requirements Specification?

A Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a document that explains what the software will accomplish and how it will work. It is a formal report that serves as a representation of software and allows customers to assess whether it (SRS) meets their needs. It also outlines the functionality that the product must have in order to meet the needs of all stakeholders. This report is created after all requirements have been solicited and analyzed, and it serves as a foundation for software engineering tasks.

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Ques 25. What is a Feasibility Study?

As the name implies, a feasibility study is an analysis or measurement of a software product in terms of how advantageous product development will be for the business in terms of practicality. It determines whether the project is legally, technically, and commercially feasible.

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Ques 26. Explain HLD (High-Level Design).

It refers to the general design of the system. It describes the application's overall description and architecture. It includes a system architecture description, database design, a brief overview of systems, services, platforms, and module relationships. From the primary module to all submodules, it creates the overall architecture of the system. Architects will provide the High-Level Design in order to begin the development process. This is quite helpful for developers in comprehending the system's flow.

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Ques 27. Explain LLD (Low-Level Design).

LLD (Low-LevelLevel Design) is a term that refers to the process of detailing. It provides a full description of each module, including actual logic for each system component and a thorough examination of each module's specifications. Every program undergoes logic design, which is subsequently recorded as program specifications. A unit test plan is prepared for each software. The micro-level or intricate design is another name for it. After the High-Level Design, the Low-Level Design is created.

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Ques 28. Explain prototyping in SDLC process.

Building software application prototypes that display the capabilities of the product under development, but may not have the exact logic of the original software, is referred to as software prototyping. It's built, tested, and revised until it's deemed suitable as a prototype. It also serves as a foundation for the final system or program. It's best used in situations where the project's requirements aren't fully understood. Software prototyping is gaining popularity as a software development strategy because it allows for an early understanding of customer requirements.

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Ques 29. What do a Software Project Manager's responsibilities entail?

The Software Project Manager is in charge of seeing the project through to completion. The Software Project Manager is responsible for ensuring that the entire team follows a methodical and well-defined approach to software development. They also handle project planning, tracking project status, resource management, and risk management.

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Ques 30. What is the main aim of prototyping?

It mainly offers a mini-model of the proposed system where the minimum required features are implemented and presented to the customer/client.

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Ques 31. What are the limitations of the Agile Model?

  • It is not a useful method for small development projects.
  • It requires an expert to take important decisions in the meeting.
  • The cost of implementing an agile method is a little more compared to other development methodologies.
  • The project can easily go off track if the project manager is not clear about what outcome he/she wants.

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Experienced / Expert level questions & answers

Ques 32. Explain the weaknesses of the waterfall model.

Weaknesses of waterfall model are:

a) It is Inflexible
b) Accommodating changes is very hard
c) Longest tangible delivery time. The customer does not see anything but the whole product when itís ready.
d) Unsuitable for large projects and where requirements are not clear. 

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Ques 33. Explain when to use the waterfall model.

One should use the waterfall model only when:

  • Requirements are very clear and fixed.
  • There are no ambiguous requirements.
  • Ample resources with required expertise are available freely.
  • The client has high confidence in the organization.
  • The organization has experience of similar projects.
  • The project is short.

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Ques 34. Describe V-Shaped software development life cycle model.

The V-shaped SDLC model is an extension of the waterfall model.

The typical waterfall moves linearly downwards, whereas, in the V-shaped model, phases are turned upwards after the coding phase to form the V shape. It demonstrates the relationship between each phase of SDLC and its respective testing phase. Unlike the waterfall model, the V-Shape includes early test planning.

V model in SDLC

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Ques 35. Briefly describe the phases in the V-Shaped model.

Phases in V-Shaped model:
Verification phases are on the left side of the V-shape. It consists of:

Requirements analysis: Requirements are gathered and analysis is performed to understand the problem and propose a solution.
System Design: Engineers analyze the requirements gathered and propose ways the system can be created or built from a feasibility point of view.
Architecture design: Architecture of the system is designed consisting of various modules, depicting their relationships and communication between them. 
Module design: This is a low level design where modules are designed individually and in a detailed manner.

Coding: This is at the bottom of the V-Shape model. Module design is converted into code by developers.

Validation phases are on the right side of the V-shape. It consists of:
Unit testing: Testing by analysis of the code by developers for their independent modules is done.
Integration testing: Independent modules are tested together to validate interface and expose errors in them.
System testing: The system is tested against the system specifications.
User Acceptance testing: Testing is performed by end users to validate that the requirements mentioned in requirements phase have been met by the system or not before accepting it for production. 

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Ques 36. Explain the strengths of the V-Shaped model.

Strengths of V-Shaped model:

a) Simple and easy to use model.
b) Every phase has clear and fixed deliverables.
c) Higher chances of success as test planning starts early in the SDLC cycle.
d) Quickest for project where requirements are fixed and clearly defined. 

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Ques 37. Explain the weaknesses of the V-Shaped model.

Weaknesses of V-Shaped model:
a) It is inflexible.
b) Changes in requirements are very hard to accommodate
c) No early prototypes are available
d) Needs ample skilled resources. 

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Ques 38. Explain when to use the V-Shaped model.

The V-shaped model should be used for small to medium sized projects where requirements are clearly defined and fixed. The model accommodates more planning for test than waterfall but makes accommodation of changes harder than other models. The V-Shaped model should be chosen when ample technical resources are available with needed technical expertise. Since, no prototypes are produced, there is a very high risk involved in meeting customer expectations, therefore, confidence of customer should be very high in order for choosing the V-Shaped model approach. 

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Ques 39. Briefly describe the phases in the Prototype model.

Phases in prototype model:
Identify some requirements to begin with: Get a list of some major requirements which define the need for the new system including the main input output information.
Develop initial prototype: Develop a basic initial prototype which only has UI screens.
Review the prototype: End users and SMEís work and examine the prototype and provide feedback for improvements/enhancements.
Revise and enhance the prototype: Scope is changed based on feedback from end users and the prototype is enhanced and refined to accommodate user feedback.  

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Ques 40. Explain the strengths of the prototype model.

Strengths of the prototype model are:

a) Gains customer's confidence as developers and customers are in sync with each other's expectations continuously.
b) Ideal for online systems where high level of human computer interaction is involved.
c) Very flexible, as changes in requirements can be accommodated much more easily with every new review and refining.
d) Helps the developers and users both understand the system better.
e) Software built through prototyping needs minimal user training as users get trained using the prototypes on their own from the very beginning of the project.
f) Integration requirements are very well understood and deployment channels are decided at a very early stage. 

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Ques 41. Explain the weaknesses of the prototype model.

Weaknesses of the Prototype model are:

a) Focusing on the prototype can mislead developers from understanding the actual desired system.
b) End users get confused, believing the prototype to be the complete system
c) Developers might misunderstand end users objectives.
d) Developer might get too involved in prototype and deviate from the actual system that the prototype must be converted into.
e) Expensive as prototypes need a lot of effort and time. It may take a lot of work to be done for very less needed work to be achieved.

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Ques 42. Explain when to use the Prototype model.

Prototype model should be used when the desired system needs to have a lot of interaction with the end users. Typically, online systems, web interfaces have a very high amount of interaction with end users, are best suited for Prototype model. It might take a while for a system to be built that allows ease of use and needs minimal training for the end user. Prototyping ensures that the end users constantly work with the system and provide a feedback which is incorporated in the prototype to result in a useable system. They are excellent for designing good human computer interface systems. 

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Ques 43. Briefly describe the phases in the rapid application development (RAD) model.

Phases in RAD:

  • Business modeling: The information flow is identified between various business functions.
  • Data modeling: Information gathered from business modeling is used to define data objects that are needed for the business.
  • Process modeling: Data objects defined in data modeling are converted to achieve the business information flow to achieve some specific business objective. The description is identified and created for CRUD of data objects.
  • Application generation: Automated tools are used to convert process models into code and the actual system.
  • Testing and turnover: Test new components and all the interfaces. 

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Ques 44. Explain the strengths of the rapid application development (RAD) model.

Strengths of RAD:

a) Reduced development time.
b) Increases reusability of components
c) High modularization achieves a more flexible and maintainable system
d) Quick initial reviews occur.

e) Encourages customer feedback
f) Integration from very beginning solves a lot of integration issues.
g) Business owners actively participate 

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Ques 45. Explain the weaknesses of the Rapid Application Development (RAD) model.

Weaknesses of RAD:

a) Depends on strong team and individual performances for identifying business requirements.
b) Only system that can be modularized can be built using RAD
c) Requires highly skilled developers/designers.
d) High dependency on modeling skills
e) Inapplicable to cheaper projects as cost of modeling and automated code generation is very high for cheaper budgeted projects to befit. 

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Ques 46. Explain when to use the rapid application development (RAD) model.

RAD should be used when there is a need to create a system that can be modularized in 2-3 months of time. It should be used if there's high availability of designers for modeling and the budget is high enough to afford their cost along with the cost of automated code generating tools.

RAD SDLC model should be chosen only if resources with high business knowledge are available and there is a need to produce the system in a short span of time (2-3 months). 

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Ques 47. Explain the strengths of the Incremental model.

The strengths of the incremental model are:

a) Develop high-risk business features first
b) Every increment delivers an operational product
c) Customer's confidence is high as they validate every increment and provide feedback
d) Low initial delivery cost
e) Changes in requirements can be accommodated easily.
f) More flexible than waterfall. 

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Ques 48. Explain the weaknesses of the Incremental model.

Weaknesses of incremental model are:
a) Needs good planning and design.
b) Needs a clear and complete definition of the complete system before it can be broken down and built incrementally.
c) Integration needs are very high
d) Total cost is higher than waterfall. 

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Ques 49. Explain when to use the Incremental model.

The incremental model should only be used when:

  • The requirements of the complete system are clearly defined and understood.
  • Major requirements must be defined; however, some details can evolve with time.
  • There is a need to get a product to the market early.
  • New technology is being used
  • Resources with needed skill sets are not available
  • There are some high-risk features and goals. 

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Ques 50. Explain the strengths of the spiral model.

Strengths of the Spiral model:

a) Early identification of potential risk areas.
b) Customer sees a prototype very early in the SDLC.
c) Critical and risky features are built first for risk mitigation and clarifying requirements.
d) Design can evolve with iterations.
e) Feedback from users helps maintain their expectations.
f) Cost is assessed frequently, hence better planning. 

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Ques 51. Explain the weaknesses of the spiral model.

Weaknesses of Spiral model are:
a) Not suitable for smaller or low budget projects as cost is high for identifying risks.
b) Time spent on risks, planning, and prototyping may not be as efficient.
c) It is complex.
d) Spiral may continue indefinitely.
e) Hard to define clear milestones, which allow the SDLC to move to the next phase.
f) Developers must have other work during non development phases. 

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Ques 52. Explain when to use the spiral model.

Spiral model should be used when:

a) Prototypes are expected/needed.
b) Large and high budget projects
c) When risk assessment is very critical
d) Requirements are not very clearly defined.
e) Requirements are vague and even complex
f) The organization does not have much experience with the domain.
g) Ample time is available. 

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Ques 53. Describe the importance of selecting team members with a mix of personality types for software development.

Choosing or building the right team is vital for the success of any project.

A project needs a variety of skills and qualities that are not present in any individual. However, as a workaround, a team should be built of people with a variety of skill sets to fulfill the project need.

The main advantage of choosing team members with a mix of personality types is that it provides a wider range of views towards a project or any specific action item in the project, e.g. requirements, design, development, testing or even implementation. Different views allow for a broader angle to a problem and solution minimizing the risk of missing requirements or misunderstanding them.

Some of the personality traits that are essential to any project are:

  • Aggressive go getter, contrary, a calm patient and more laid back personality
  • Risk taker, contrary, a cautious personality
  • Strategic, contrary, analytical personality
  • Lateral thinking

Different situations in a project are handled better by different personality types and hence a perfect blend/mix of personality types is essential for the project to complete successfully. 

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Ques 54. Describe the phases of team development in SDLC.

The 4 stages of team building are:

Forming: Team members are told what is expected out of them and where do they fit in the team. The team is guided using operating guidelines, and communication within.

Storming: During this phase team members show some resistance and frustrations trying to work together. There would be jealousies and ego clashes and the team manager must act as a referee or a coach.

Norming: In this phase the team has learnt to function as a whole. Team members find their consistent ways of working and hold their ideas back to avoid problems and conflicts. The team manager guides the team to not hold themselves back by increasing responsibilities and pressures.

Performing: In this phase the team has learnt to perform their role as whole, have and resolve conflicts, take risks, make adjustments or compromises, and perform actively to face various challenges. 

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Ques 55. What is the difference between an Iterative model and the Waterfall model?

Waterfall Model is a flow based model, in which we pass every phase once, and can not go back to that phase again. Its most eminent drawback is that if there is any change in requirements, we cannot make any changes to the requirement section. Iterative Model is somewhat similar to waterfall model but herein we can always come back to previous phases, and make the changes accordingly.

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Ques 56. Explain the Difference between SDLC and STLC?

SDLC is a software development life Cycle model which is utilized for project management and involves processes from the feasibility Analysis to maintenance of the completed application. STLC is Software testing Life cycle and SDLC work closely together and are almost inseparable under some of the activities. However the stages are very different under sdlc and stlc.

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Ques 57. What are functional requirements?

Functional requirement is a document which contains what a certain system has to do to achieve a certain specific objective.This task is carried out during the preliminary stage of SDLC.

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Ques 58. What are Non-functional requirements?

Without Non-functional, a software will never function or will have vital missing information in its output. Response time, security, reliability, accuracy, capacity and availability are examples of Non functional requirement for a software development process. Non functional requirements decides how the Program or the software will function in future.

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Ques 59. What is the difference between Incremental model and Spiral model?

There is not much difference between these two sdlc models. Sdlc spiral Model includes the iterative nature of the prototyping model and the linear nature of the waterfall model. This approach is ideal for developing software that is revealed in various versions.

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Ques 60. Give some practical real life examples of Spiral Model.

The most popular real life examples for sdlc Spiral model are Microsoft Windows operating System, Visual Studio Manager, Adobe Photoshop, WordPress CMS and many more.

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Ques 61. Why is Agile so popular?

Agile methodology is way too advanced and complex than the simple Waterfall model. The feasibility of agile to reshape the entire development structure to suit the most effective outcome is what makes Agile the number 1 choice of developers today.

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Ques 62. Can I build a software project without sdlc models?

Of course. There are no hard and fast requirements for a developer to implement any SDLC model for developing a software project. The ability to simplify a project into modules and ascertain the correct progression for completion is the only reason for which SDLC models and methodology was designed in the first place. You can surely work without them but the challenges will be more and there won't be any specific process to organize your work as a whole.

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Ques 63. What is the use of JAD session?

JAD is a strategy for defining business system requirements that are commonly utilized in the early phases of a systems development project. JAD's goal is to bring MIS and end-users together in a structured workshop setting in order to extract outcome system needs. It allows clients and developers to swiftly agree on a project's fundamental scope, objectives, and specifications.

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Ques 64. What is the Software release process?

The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) release phase is historically connected with production, deployment, and post-production operations, which generally include software maintenance and support. So, release management is the process of managing, planning, scheduling, and controlling a full software development at every stage and environment, including testing and releasing software releases.

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Ques 65. What is Functional Requirement Specification (FRS) document?

This document captures the user's voice from the outside or the end user's perspective. A Business System Analyst creates it (BSA). This paper demonstrates how a system will react when a user interacts with it in order to meet the BRD and SRD standards. The key area of interest for software experts is the Functional Requirement Specification (FRS). An FRS is useful for software testers to learn the situations in which the product is intended to be tested, just as it is for developers to understand what product they are planning to produce. An FRS's ultimate purpose is to meet all of the requirements outlined in the SRS and BRS regulations.

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Ques 66. What are different types of prototype model?

There are four types of Prototyping models:

  • Rapid Throwaway prototypes.
  • Evolutionary prototype.
  • Incremental prototype.
  • Extreme prototype.

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Ques 67. How can DDLC and SDLC work together?

The DDLC (Documentation Development Life Cycle) is a software documentation development life cycle used by technical documenters to prepare software documentation. The life cycle is followed in tandem with the SDLC, as testers and developers work on the program at the same time. Because the documentation requires input and feedback from the various phases of the SDLC, the DDLC has stages that are comparable to the SDLC.

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Ques 68. What is Level-0 DFD?

Context Diagram is another name for DFD Level 0. It's a high-level overview of the entire system or process that's being studied or modeled. It's meant to be a quick peek into the system, displaying it as a single high-level process with its connections to external entities. Stakeholders, business analysts, data analysts, and developers should all be able to understand it readily.

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Ques 69. What is Capability Maturity Model in SDLC?

The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a cross-discipline and technical paradigm for facilitating and refining software development processes and system improvement. This methodology is at the heart of most management systems that aim to improve the quality of all product and service development and delivery.

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Ques 70. What are Capability Maturity Model(CMM) levels?

Following are the five Capability Maturity Model Levels:

  • Initial: The first step is to create an unstable process environment. The software development process is considered haphazard and even chaotic at times. There are few methods that have been specified, and success is based on individual effort and heroism.
  • Repeatable: Work is planned and monitored, making it repeatable. To track cost, schedule, and functionality, basic project management techniques are implemented.
  • Defined: This level encompasses written and defined standards that evolve over time and support consistent performance. The work is well-defined at this point.
  • Managed: Extensive data on the software development process and product quality are gathered. Both the software development process and the end products are quantified and managed.
  • Optimized: Work is based on continuous improvement (optimization). The focus on continuously improving process performance is a significant feature of this level.

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Ques 71. Briefly explain Scrum methodology in the Agile model.

Scrum is an agile development approach based on iterative and incremental procedures that are used in the creation of software. It's an agile structure that's adaptable, rapid, flexible, and excellent at delivering value to customers throughout the project's development. Companies of all sizes employ the Agile Scrum technique because of its ability to provide high-end cooperation and efficiency for project-based work. Scrum is a sort of agile approach that breaks projects down into manageable parts known as "sprints." The Agile Scrum methodology is ideal for companies who need to complete projects fast.

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Ques 72. What do you know about Scrum impediments?

Obstacles or challenges that the scrum team faces slow down their work speed are referred to as impediments. An obstacle is anything that tries to prevent the scrum team from getting work "Done." Impediments can take many different forms. Some of the roadblocks include resource shortages or sick team members, technical, operational, and organizational issues, a lack of management support systems, and business issues.

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Ques 73. What is Software Configuration Management, and how does it work?

The process of tracking and regulating changes that occur during the software development lifecycle is known as software configuration management. Any modification made during the development of software must be tracked using a well-defined and controlled process. Any modifications performed during software development are regulated through a well-defined process, thanks to configuration management. Revision control and the establishment of baselines are two SCM procedures.

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Ques 74. Differentiate between quality assurance and quality control.

  • Quality Assurance ensures that the software delivered has the fewest possible defects. Quality Control is the process of ensuring that a product's quality is maintained over time.
  • Quality Assurance is handled by the project's testing team, whereas Quality Control is handled by a dedicated support team that is accountable for the product's quality even if it is in the maintenance phase of software engineering.

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Ques 75. Briefly describe the RAD model.

The Rapid Application Development (RAD) paradigm is a software development method that relies on prototyping rather than detailed design. It should be utilized when a system that can be modularized in two to three months is required. It should be employed if there is a large number of designers available for modeling and the budget allows for their costs as well as the costs of automated code generation technologies.

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