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Freshers / Beginner level questions & answers

Ques 1. Explain the concept of ACID properties in the context of databases.

ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability, ensuring the reliability of database transactions.

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Ques 2. What is the purpose of the WHERE clause in a PostgreSQL query?

The WHERE clause filters records based on a specified condition, allowing selective data retrieval.

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Ques 3. What is a foreign key, and how does it enforce referential integrity?

A foreign key is a field that refers to the primary key in another table. It enforces referential integrity by ensuring that values in the foreign key match values in the referenced table's primary key.

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Ques 4. Explain the purpose of the SERIAL data type in PostgreSQL.

SERIAL is an auto-incrementing integer data type often used for creating unique identifiers in a column. It is commonly used for primary key columns.

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Ques 5. What is the purpose of the pg_ctl utility in PostgreSQL?

The pg_ctl utility is used to start, stop, and control the PostgreSQL server, providing a convenient way to manage server processes.

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Ques 6. What is the purpose of the pg_dumpall utility in PostgreSQL?

The pg_dumpall utility is used to create a SQL script that can reconstruct an entire PostgreSQL database cluster, including all databases, users, and privileges.

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Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

Ques 7. What is PostgreSQL, and how does it differ from other relational database systems?

PostgreSQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). It differs from others by its extensibility and support for SQL and procedural languages.

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Ques 8. Describe the role of the PRIMARY KEY constraint in PostgreSQL.

The PRIMARY KEY constraint uniquely identifies each record in a table and ensures data integrity.

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Ques 9. Explain the difference between INNER JOIN and LEFT JOIN in PostgreSQL.

INNER JOIN retrieves rows where there is a match in both tables, while LEFT JOIN retrieves all rows from the left table and matching rows from the right table.

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Ques 10. What is a subquery, and how is it different from a JOIN?

A subquery is a query nested within another query, returning a single value or a set of values. JOIN combines rows from two or more tables based on a related column.

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Ques 11. Explain the purpose of the EXPLAIN command in PostgreSQL.

The EXPLAIN command shows the execution plan of a statement, helping to optimize queries by revealing how PostgreSQL processes them.

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Ques 12. What is a view in PostgreSQL, and how is it different from a table?

A view is a virtual table based on the result of a SELECT query. It does not store the data itself but provides a way to represent data stored in one or more tables. Unlike a table, a view does not store data physically.

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Ques 13. What are common indexing techniques in PostgreSQL, and when should they be used?

Common indexing techniques include B-tree, Hash, and GiST indexes. They should be used to improve query performance, especially for columns frequently used in WHERE clauses or JOIN conditions.

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Ques 14. Explain the difference between VACUUM and ANALYZE in PostgreSQL.

VACUUM is used to reclaim storage occupied by dead tuples, while ANALYZE is used to update statistics about the distribution of data in a table, helping the query planner make better decisions.

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Ques 15. What is the purpose of the pg_hba.conf file in PostgreSQL?

The pg_hba.conf file controls client authentication, specifying which hosts are allowed to connect to the PostgreSQL server and how they can authenticate.

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Ques 16. Explain the concept of normalization in the context of database design.

Normalization is the process of organizing data to eliminate redundancy and dependency, ensuring data integrity and reducing the likelihood of anomalies in a database.

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Ques 17. Explain the difference between a stored procedure and a function in PostgreSQL.

Stored procedures are precompiled sets of one or more SQL statements stored in the database, while functions return a value and can be used in SQL queries like any other value.

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Ques 18. What is the purpose of the COPY command in PostgreSQL?

The COPY command is used to copy data between a file and a table or between tables. It is a high-performance mechanism for bulk data loading.

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Ques 19. What is a materialized view in PostgreSQL, and when should it be used?

A materialized view is a snapshot of a query result that is stored and can be queried like a table. It should be used when you need to precompute and store the results of a complex query for faster retrieval.

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Ques 20. Explain the difference between a hot standby and a warm standby in PostgreSQL replication.

A hot standby is a replica that is actively applying changes from the primary server and is ready for failover. A warm standby is a replica that is not actively applying changes but can quickly take over in case of a primary failure.

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Ques 21. What is the purpose of the pg_stat_bgwriter view in PostgreSQL?

The pg_stat_bgwriter view provides statistics about the background writer process in PostgreSQL, helping monitor and optimize the writing of dirty buffers to disk.

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Experienced / Expert level questions & answers

Ques 22. How can you optimize a PostgreSQL query for better performance?

Optimization techniques include using indexes, proper query design, and analyzing query execution plans.

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Ques 23. What is a stored procedure, and how can you create one in PostgreSQL?

A stored procedure is a set of SQL statements stored in the database and executed as a single unit. You can create one using the CREATE PROCEDURE statement.

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Ques 24. How do you perform a backup and restore in PostgreSQL?

You can use the pg_dump utility to create a backup and the pg_restore utility to restore the database from a backup file. Additionally, you can use the pg_basebackup tool for physical backups.

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Ques 25. How can you handle concurrent access and prevent data corruption in PostgreSQL?

Concurrency control techniques include using transactions, locks, and isolation levels to ensure data consistency and prevent conflicts between multiple transactions.

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Ques 26. What is the purpose of the pg_stat_statements module in PostgreSQL?

The pg_stat_statements module provides statistics about SQL statements executed by a server, helping identify slow queries and optimize database performance.

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Ques 27. How can you implement full-text search in PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL provides the tsvector and tsquery data types along with the full-text search functions. To implement full-text search, you can use the tsvector column for indexing and the @@ operator for searching.

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Ques 28. Explain the purpose of the pg_upgrade utility in PostgreSQL.

The pg_upgrade utility is used to upgrade a PostgreSQL database cluster to a new major version without requiring a full dump and restore. It simplifies the upgrade process.

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Ques 29. How do you perform database replication in PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL supports various replication methods, including streaming replication and logical replication. Streaming replication is a physical replication method, while logical replication replicates changes at the SQL level.

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Ques 30. Explain the concept of table partitioning in PostgreSQL and its benefits.

Table partitioning involves dividing a large table into smaller, more manageable pieces called partitions. It can improve query performance, simplify data management, and enhance maintenance operations.

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