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## Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

### Ques 1. What is the time complexity of quicksort algorithm?

The average and best-case time complexity is O(n log n), while the worst case is O(n^2).

### Ques 2. Explain the concept of dynamic programming.

Dynamic programming is a method for solving complex problems by breaking them down into simpler overlapping subproblems and solving each subproblem only once, storing the solutions to subproblems to avoid redundant computations.

### Ques 3. How does a hash table work?

A hash table is a data structure that uses a hash function to map keys to indices in an array. It allows for efficient insertion, deletion, and retrieval of data. Collisions can be resolved using techniques like chaining or open addressing.

### Ques 4. What is the difference between greedy and dynamic programming?

Greedy algorithms make locally optimal choices at each stage with the hope of finding a global optimum, while dynamic programming involves solving subproblems and combining their solutions to solve the overall problem.

### Ques 5. What is the Floyd-Warshall algorithm used for?

The Floyd-Warshall algorithm is used for finding the shortest paths between all pairs of vertices in a weighted graph, even if the graph contains negative weight edges.

### Ques 6. How does the A* algorithm work?

A* (A-star) is a pathfinding algorithm that uses a combination of the cost to reach a node and an estimate of the cost to reach the goal from that node. It prioritizes nodes with lower total cost.

### Ques 7. What is a trie data structure?

A trie is a tree-like data structure that is used to store a dynamic set or associative array where keys are usually strings. It allows for efficient insertion, deletion, and lookup operations.

### Ques 8. What is the purpose of Dijkstra's algorithm?

Dijkstra's algorithm is used to find the shortest paths from a source vertex to all other vertices in a weighted graph. It works for graphs with non-negative edge weights.

### Ques 9. Explain the concept of backtracking.

Backtracking is a general algorithm for finding all (or some) solutions to computational problems, particularly constraint satisfaction problems. It incrementally builds candidates for solutions and abandons a candidate as soon as it determines it cannot be completed to a valid solution.

### Ques 10. What is the purpose of the Bellman-Ford algorithm?

The Bellman-Ford algorithm is used to find the shortest paths from a source vertex to all other vertices in a weighted graph. It can handle graphs with negative weight edges, but it detects and reports negative weight cycles.

### Ques 11. Explain the concept of topological sorting.

Topological sorting is an ordering of the vertices of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) such that for every directed edge (u, v), vertex u comes before v in the ordering. It is used in scheduling and task sequencing.

### Ques 12. How does the Rabin-Karp algorithm work?

The Rabin-Karp algorithm is a string-searching algorithm that efficiently finds the occurrence of a pattern within a text by using hashing. It checks for a match by comparing hash values of the pattern and substrings of the text.

### Ques 13. What is the purpose of the Prim's algorithm?

Prim's algorithm is used to find the minimum spanning tree of a connected, undirected graph. It starts with an arbitrary node and adds the shortest edge at each step, avoiding cycles.

### Ques 14. Explain the concept of the Boyer-Moore algorithm.

The Boyer-Moore algorithm is a string-searching algorithm that efficiently finds the occurrence of a pattern within a text. It uses a preprocessing step to skip portions of the text when mismatches occur.

### Ques 15. What is the purpose of the Huffman coding algorithm?

Huffman coding is a compression algorithm that creates variable-length codes for characters based on their frequencies in the input. It produces prefix codes, ensuring that no code is a prefix of another.

### Ques 16. What is the purpose of the Floyd's cycle-finding algorithm?

Floyd's cycle-finding algorithm, also known as the Tortoise and the Hare algorithm, is used to detect cycles in a sequence, particularly in linked lists. It involves two pointers moving at different speeds.

### Ques 17. How does the Bresenham's line algorithm work?

Bresenham's line algorithm is used for drawing a line between two points in a grid. It efficiently determines the pixels to be illuminated by considering the slope of the line.

### Ques 18. Explain the concept of the Dutch National Flag problem.

The Dutch National Flag problem is a sorting problem that involves arranging an array of objects (usually colors) into three partitions (red, white, and blue) such that objects of the same color are grouped together.

### Ques 19. What is the purpose of the Boyer-Moore-Horspool algorithm?

Boyer-Moore-Horspool is an improvement to the Boyer-Moore string-searching algorithm. It skips more characters in the text when a mismatch occurs, leading to faster searches.

### Ques 20. What is the purpose of the K-means clustering algorithm?

K-means clustering is an unsupervised machine learning algorithm that partitions a dataset into k clusters. It minimizes the variance within each cluster and is commonly used in data analysis and image segmentation.

### Ques 21. Explain the concept of the Longest Common Subsequence (LCS).

The Longest Common Subsequence is the longest sequence of characters that appear in the same order in two (or more) strings. It is used in bioinformatics, text comparison, and version control.

### Ques 22. What is the purpose of the Trie-based autocomplete system?

A Trie-based autocomplete system efficiently suggests word completions by traversing a trie data structure that stores a dictionary. It is commonly used in search engines and text editors.

### Ques 23. Explain the concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST).

A Minimum Spanning Tree is a tree that spans all the vertices in a connected, undirected graph with the minimum possible total edge weight. Algorithms like Kruskal's and Prim's are used to find MSTs.

### Ques 24. Explain the concept of the Floyd-Warshall algorithm.

The Floyd-Warshall algorithm is used for finding the shortest paths between all pairs of vertices in a weighted graph, even if the graph contains negative weight edges.

### Ques 25. Explain the concept of the Bellman-Ford algorithm.

The Bellman-Ford algorithm is used to find the shortest paths from a source vertex to all other vertices in a weighted graph. It can handle graphs with negative weight edges, but it detects and reports negative weight cycles.