Prepare Interview

Mock Exams

Make Homepage

## Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

### Ques 1. Explain the concept of shaders in computer graphics.

Shaders are small programs that run on the GPU and are used to control the rendering pipeline. Vertex shaders process vertices, while fragment shaders handle pixel colors.

Example:

`A vertex shader can transform 3D coordinates, and a fragment shader can apply lighting and textures to determine the final pixel color.`

### Ques 2. What is the difference between Gouraud shading and Phong shading?

Gouraud shading interpolates colors across vertices before rasterization, while Phong shading interpolates normals across vertices and computes lighting per pixel.

Example:

`Gouraud shading might produce smoother results for flat surfaces, while Phong shading is better at capturing highlights and reflections.`

### Ques 3. What is the difference between orthographic and perspective projection?

Orthographic projection preserves parallel lines and distances but lacks depth perception. Perspective projection simulates how objects appear smaller as they move away, creating a sense of depth.

Example:

`Orthographic projection is common in engineering drawings, while perspective projection is used in realistic 3D rendering.`

### Ques 4. Explain the concept of the Z-buffer in 3D graphics.

The Z-buffer, or depth buffer, is used to determine the depth of each pixel in a scene. It helps in rendering objects correctly, ensuring that closer objects obscure farther ones.

Example:

`Rendering a scene with multiple overlapping 3D objects, ensuring proper occlusion using the Z-buffer.`

### Ques 5. What is a 3D transformation matrix in computer graphics?

A 3D transformation matrix is used to represent transformations such as translation, rotation, and scaling in three-dimensional space. It allows efficient manipulation of 3D geometry.

Example:

`Applying a rotation matrix to a 3D model to change its orientation in space.`

### Ques 6. Explain the concept of mipmapping in texture mapping.

Mipmapping involves creating a series of precomputed textures at different levels of detail. This helps in optimizing texture quality and performance based on the distance from the camera.

Example:

`Using mipmapping to display high-resolution textures for nearby objects and lower-resolution textures for distant objects in a 3D scene.`

### Ques 7. Explain the concept of alpha blending in computer graphics.

Alpha blending involves combining the color of a pixel with the background color based on an alpha value. This is commonly used for creating transparency effects.

Example:

`Rendering a semi-transparent object using alpha blending to blend it smoothly with the background.`

### Ques 8. Explain the concept of UV mapping in texture coordinates.

UV mapping is a technique that involves mapping 2D texture coordinates (U, V) onto the 3D surface of a model. It allows the application of textures to the surface with precision.

Example:

`Applying a texture to a 3D model's surface by mapping UV coordinates to the vertices.`

### Ques 9. Explain the concept of ambient occlusion in computer graphics.

Ambient occlusion simulates the soft shadows that occur in areas where surfaces are close to each other. It is used to enhance the realism of rendered scenes by considering the influence of ambient light.

Example:

`Adding subtle shading to the corners and crevices of objects in a 3D scene to simulate ambient occlusion.`

### Ques 10. What is the purpose of a normal map in computer graphics?

A normal map stores per-pixel normal vectors in an image. It is used to enhance the surface detail of 3D models without adding additional geometry.

Example:

`Simulating fine details like bumps and wrinkles on a character's skin using a normal map.`

### Ques 11. What is the role of a graphics pipeline in computer graphics?

A graphics pipeline is a series of stages that process and transform 3D data to generate a 2D image for display. These stages include vertex processing, primitive assembly, rasterization, and fragment processing.

Example:

`Rendering a 3D scene by passing vertices through various stages of the graphics pipeline.`

### Ques 12. Explain the concept of color space in computer graphics.

Color space defines the range and representation of colors in an image. Common color spaces include RGB (Red, Green, Blue) and CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black).

Example:

`Converting an image from the RGB color space to the CMYK color space for printing purposes.`