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## Experienced / Expert level questions & answers

### Ques 1. What is the efficient market hypothesis (EMH)?

EMH states that all available information is already reflected in a security's price. Therefore, it's impossible to consistently achieve higher-than-average returns by analyzing the market.

Example:

`If a stock's price quickly adjusts to new information, it supports the efficient market hypothesis.`

### Ques 2. Explain the concept of beta in the context of investments.

Beta measures a stock's volatility in relation to the market. A beta of 1 means the stock tends to move with the market, while a beta above 1 indicates higher volatility.

Example:

`A stock with a beta of 1.5 is expected to move 1.5 times more than the market.`

### Ques 3. What is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?

WACC is the average rate of return a company is expected to pay to its investors, including shareholders and debtholders. It's calculated by weighting the cost of equity and debt.

Example:

`If a company has a cost of equity of 10% and a cost of debt of 5%, and the debt-to-equity ratio is 2:1, the WACC is 8.33%.`

### Ques 4. Describe the differences between financial accounting and managerial accounting.

Financial accounting focuses on external financial reporting for investors and regulators, while managerial accounting provides information for internal decision-making by management.

Example:

`Preparing financial statements for shareholders is an example of financial accounting, while creating a budget for a department is an example of managerial accounting.`

### Ques 5. What is the Black-Scholes Model and how is it used?

The Black-Scholes Model is a mathematical model for calculating the theoretical price of European-style options. It considers factors like stock price, option strike price, time to expiration, volatility, and risk-free interest rate.

Example:

`The Black-Scholes Model is commonly used by options traders to estimate the fair market value of options.`

### Ques 6. Explain the concept of the risk-return tradeoff in investing.

The risk-return tradeoff is the principle that potential return increases with an increase in risk. Investors must balance the desire for higher returns with the acceptance of higher risk.

Example:

`Investing in stocks has the potential for higher returns but also higher volatility and risk compared to investing in government bonds.`

### Ques 7. What is the difference between fiscal policy and monetary policy?

Fiscal policy involves government decisions on taxing and spending, while monetary policy is controlled by central banks and involves managing the money supply and interest rates.

Example:

`If the government increases spending to stimulate economic growth, it is an example of fiscal policy.`

### Ques 8. Define the concept of arbitrage and provide an example.

Arbitrage is the practice of exploiting price differences for the same asset in different markets. An arbitrageur aims to profit from discrepancies in prices.

Example:

`If a stock is trading at \$50 on one exchange and \$51 on another, an arbitrageur could buy on the lower-priced exchange and sell on the higher-priced exchange to make a profit.`

### Ques 9. What is the Modigliani-Miller theorem, and how does it relate to capital structure?

The Modigliani-Miller theorem states that, under certain assumptions, the value of a firm is unaffected by its capital structure. In other words, the mix of debt and equity financing does not impact the overall value of the company.

Example:

`If a company increases its debt to fund projects, the Modigliani-Miller theorem suggests that the value of the company remains the same, assuming no taxes or bankruptcy costs.`

### Ques 10. Explain the concept of a derivative and provide examples of derivative instruments.

A derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset. Examples include options, futures, and swaps.

Example:

`An option to buy a stock at a specified price is a derivative instrument. Its value is derived from the price movements of the underlying stock.`

### Ques 11. Explain the concept of the time-weighted rate of return (TWR) in investment performance measurement.

The time-weighted rate of return measures the compound rate of growth in a portfolio, removing the impact of external cash flows. It provides an accurate representation of the investment manager's performance.

Example:

`If an investment grows by 5% in the first quarter and 10% in the second quarter, the time-weighted rate of return for the half-year period is [(1 + 0.05) * (1 + 0.10) - 1].`

### Ques 12. What are the key differences between a bull market and a bear market?

A bull market is characterized by rising asset prices, optimism, and investor confidence. A bear market is marked by falling prices, pessimism, and widespread selling.

Example:

`During a bull market, investors may be more willing to take risks and buy stocks. In a bear market, investors may seek safer assets like bonds or cash.`

### Ques 13. Define the term 'real options' in investment decision-making.

Real options are opportunities to make decisions during a project's life that can alter the project's cash flows and risk. They add flexibility to investment strategies and can enhance value.

Example:

`The option to expand a manufacturing facility if market conditions improve is an example of a real option in business investment.`

### Ques 14. Explain the concept of the efficient frontier in portfolio theory.

The efficient frontier represents the set of optimal portfolios that offer the highest expected return for a given level of risk or the lowest risk for a given level of return. It is a key concept in modern portfolio theory.

Example:

`By diversifying a portfolio with assets that have low correlation, an investor can achieve a more efficient risk-return profile.`

### Ques 15. What is the Black-Scholes-Merton model, and how does it calculate the theoretical price of options?

The Black-Scholes-Merton model is an extension of the Black-Scholes model that considers the impact of dividends and the risk-free rate. It calculates the theoretical price of options using factors like stock price, option strike price, time to expiration, volatility, dividends, and risk-free interest rate.

Example:

`The Black-Scholes-Merton model is widely used to determine the fair market value of options and guide option pricing.`