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Intermediate / 1 to 5 years experienced level questions & answers

Ques 1. What are lifecycle hooks available in Angular? What is the lifecycle of Angular?

Angular application goes through an entire set of processes or has a lifecycle right from its initiation to the end of the application. The representation of lifecycle in pictorial representation as follows:

The description of each lifecycle method is as below,

  1. ngOnChanges: When the value of a data bound property changes, then this method is called.
  2. ngOnInit: This is called whenever the initialization of the directive/component after Angular first displays the data-bound properties happens.
  3. ngDoCheck: This is for the detection and to act on changes that Angular can't or won't detect on its own.
  4. ngAfterContentInit: This is called in response after Angular projects external content into the component's view.
  5. ngAfterContentChecked: This is called in response after Angular checks the content projected into the component.
  6. ngAfterViewInit: This is called in response after Angular initializes the component's views and child views.
  7. ngAfterViewChecked: This is called in response after Angular checks the component's views and child views.
  8. ngOnDestroy: This is the cleanup phase just before Angular destroys the directive/component.

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Ques 2. What is dependency injection in Angular?

Dependency injection (DI), is an important application design pattern in which a class asks for dependencies from external sources rather than creating them itself. Angular comes with its own dependency injection framework for resolving dependencies( services or objects that a class needs to perform its function).So you can have your services depend on other services throughout your application.

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Ques 3. What is the purpose of async pipe?

The AsyncPipe subscribes to an observable or promise and returns the latest value it has emitted. When a new value is emitted, the pipe marks the component to be checked for changes.

Let's take a time observable which continuously updates the view for every 2 seconds with the current time.

@Component({

  selector: 'async-observable-pipe',

  template: `<div><code>observable|async</code>: Time: {{ time | async }}</div>`

})

export class AsyncObservablePipeComponent {

  time = new Observable(observer => setInterval(() => observer.next(new Date().toString()), 2000) );

}

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Ques 4. What is the option to choose between inline and external template file?

You can store your component's template in one of two places. You can define it inline using the template property, or you can define the template in a separate HTML file and link to it in the component metadata using the @Component decorator's templateUrl property.

The choice between inline and separate HTML is a matter of taste, circumstances, and organization policy. But normally we use inline template for small portion of code and external template file for bigger views. By default, the Angular CLI generates components with a template file. But you can override that with the below command,

ng generate component hero -it

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Ques 5. What is interpolation?

Interpolation is a special syntax that Angular converts into property binding. It’s a convenient alternative to property binding. It is represented by double curly braces({{}}). The text between the braces is often the name of a component property. Angular replaces that name with the string value of the corresponding component property.

Let's take an example,

<h3>

  {{title}}

  <img src="{{url}}" style="height:30px">

</h3>

In the example above, Angular evaluates the title and url properties and fills in the blanks, first displaying a bold application title and then a URL.

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Ques 6. What is a parameterized pipe in Angular?

A pipe can accept any number of optional parameters to fine-tune its output. The parameterized pipe can be created by declaring the pipe name with a colon ( : ) and then the parameter value. If the pipe accepts multiple parameters, separate the values with colons. Let's take a birthday example with a particular format(dd/MM/yyyy):

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

  @Component({

  selector: 'app-birthday',

  template: `<p>Birthday is {{ birthday | date:'dd/MM/yyyy'}}</p>` // 14/07/1986 

})

export class BirthdayComponent {

  birthday = new Date(1986, 7, 14);

}

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Ques 7. How do you chain pipes in Angular?

You can chain pipes together in potentially useful combinations as per the needs. Let's take a birthday property which uses date pipe(along with parameter) and uppercase pipes as below

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

  @Component({

  selector: 'app-birthday',

  template: `<p>Birthday is {{ birthday | date:'fullDate' | uppercase}} </p>` // SUNDAY, JUNE 14, 1986 })

  export class BirthdayComponent {

  birthday = new Date(1986, 7, 14);

  }

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Ques 8. What are observables in Angular?

Observables are declarative which provide support for passing messages between publishers and subscribers in your application. They are mainly used for event handling, asynchronous programming, and handling multiple values. In this case, you define a function for publishing values, but it is not executed until a consumer subscribes to it. The subscribed consumer then receives notifications until the function completes, or until they unsubscribe.

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Ques 9. What is HttpClient and its benefits in Angular?

Most of the Front-end applications communicate with backend services over HTTP protocol using either XMLHttpRequest interface or the fetch() API. Angular provides a simplified client HTTP API known as HttpClient which is based on top of XMLHttpRequest interface. This client is avaialble from @angular/common/http package. You can import in your root module as below,

import { HttpClientModule } from '@angular/common/http';

The major advantages of HttpClient can be listed as below,

  1. Contains testability features
  2. Provides typed request and response objects
  3. Intercept request and response
  4. Supports Observalbe APIs
  5. Supports streamlined error handling

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Ques 10. Explain on how to use HttpClient with an example in Angular?

Below are the steps need to be followed for the usage of HttpClient.
Import HttpClient into root module:

import { HttpClientModule } from '@angular/common/http';
@NgModule({
  imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    // import HttpClientModule after BrowserModule.
    HttpClientModule,
  ],
  ......
  })
 export class AppModule {}


Inject the HttpClient into the application: Let's create a userProfileService(userprofile.service.ts) as an example. It also defines get method of HttpClient

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient } from '@angular/common/http';

const userProfileUrl: string = 'assets/data/profile.json';

@Injectable()
export class UserProfileService {
  constructor(private http: HttpClient) { }

  getUserProfile() {
    return this.http.get(this.userProfileUrl);
  }
}

Create a component for subscribing service: Let's create a component called UserProfileComponent(userprofile.component.ts) which inject UserProfileService and invokes the service method,

fetchUserProfile() {
  this.userProfileService.getUserProfile()
    .subscribe((data: User) => this.user = {
        id: data['userId'],
        name: data['firstName'],
        city:  data['city']
    });
}

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Ques 11. How can you read full response?

The response body doesn't may not return full response data because sometimes servers also return special headers or status code which which are important for the application workflow. Inorder to get full response, you should use observe option from HttpClient,

getUserResponse(): Observable<HttpResponse<User>> {
  return this.http.get<User>(
    this.userUrl, { observe: 'response' });
}

Now HttpClient.get() method returns an Observable of typed HttpResponse rather than just the JSON data.

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Ques 12. How do you perform Error handling?

If the request fails on the server or failed to reach the server due to network issues then HttpClient will return an error object instead of a successful reponse. In this case, you need to handle in the component by passing error object as a second callback to subscribe() method.

Let's see how it can be handled in the component with an example,

fetchUser() {
  this.userService.getProfile()
    .subscribe(
      (data: User) => this.userProfile = { ...data }, // success path
      error => this.error = error // error path
    );
}

It is always a good idea to give the user some meaningful feedback instead of displaying the raw error object returned from HttpClient.

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